Romanov Zarenfamilie Romanov: Vor 100 Jahren wurde die Zarenfamilie hingerichtet
Die Romanows sind ein altes russisches Adelsgeschlecht, welches dem Haus Oldenburg entstammt und nach den Rurikiden die zweite Dynastie, aus der die russischen Zaren hervorgingen. Romanow wird auf der zweiten Silbe betont. Die Romanows sind ein altes russisches Adelsgeschlecht und nach den Rurikiden die zweite Matthias Stadelmann: Die Romanovs. Kohlhammer Verlag. Die Ermordung der Zarenfamilie durch die Bolschewiki ereignete sich in der Nacht von auf Juli in Jekaterinburg. Der ehemalige Zar Nikolaus II. und. Eine Nacht in Jekaterinburg während der Wirren der russischen Revolution von reichte aus, um eine ganze Familie samt ihrer. - Erkunde Andreas Schwarzs Pinnwand „Romanov“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Anastasia, Russland, Russische zaren.
- Erkunde Andreas Schwarzs Pinnwand „Romanov“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Anastasia, Russland, Russische zaren. Schau dir unsere Auswahl an romanov an, um die tollsten einzigartigen oder spezialgefertigten handgemachten Stücke aus unseren Shops für schmuck zu. Die Romanows sind ein altes russisches Adelsgeschlecht, welches dem Haus Oldenburg entstammt und nach den Rurikiden die zweite Dynastie, aus der die russischen Zaren hervorgingen. Romanow wird auf der zweiten Silbe betont. Die ersten Überlegungen der provisorischen Regierung zielten darauf ab, den Zaren ins Exil zu schicken. Natalija Brassowa wurde verwehrt, ihrem Mann in die Verbannung zu folgen. Von den Personen, die sich zusammen mit den Kindern aus Tobolsk aufgemacht hatten, um zur Zarenfamilie zu gelangen, wurden Romanov wenige vorgelassen. Nach nur einem Monat in Wjatka wurden die Verbannten nach Jekaterinburg verlegt. Er wurde das erste Opfer von Denunziationen. Unter Romanov Büchern Elven PrinceГџ ermordeten Zarin waren auch die Protokolle der Weisen von Zion gefunden worden, eine erstmals veröffentlichte Fälschung, die als Beweis für eine jüdische Weltverschwörung dienen sollte. Amazon berechnet die Sternbewertungen eines Produkts mithilfe eines maschinell gelernten Modells anstelle des Durchschnitts der Rohdaten. Botkin, Trupp und Charitonow folgten ebenso schnell. Nikolais Leiche wurde als erste in ein Laken gelegt und abtransportiert. Jelena Petrowna wurde der Tscheka überstellt und von Jakow Jurowski vernommen. Er bot ihr seine Hilfe an, Russland zu verlassen. Russland stand Anfang click Diesen Inhalt per E-Mail versenden.
The Romanovs were being held by the Red Army in Yekaterinburg, since the Bolsheviks initially wanted to put them on trial.
As the civil war continued and the White Army a loose alliance of anti-Communist forces was threatening to capture the city, the fear was that the Romanovs would fall into White hands.
This was unacceptable to the Bolsheviks for two reasons: first, the tsar or any of his family members could provide a beacon to rally support to the White cause; second, the tsar, or any of his family members if the tsar were dead, would be considered the legitimate ruler of Russia by the other European nations.
This would have given the Whites some power to negotiate for greater foreign intervention on their behalf.
Soon after the family was executed, Yekaterinburg fell to the White Army. In mid-July , forces of the Czechoslovak Legion were closing on Yekaterinburg, to protect the Trans-Siberian Railway , of which they had control.
According to historian David Bullock, the Bolsheviks, falsely believing that the Czechoslovaks were on a mission to rescue the family, panicked and executed their wards.
The Legions arrived less than a week later and on 25 July captured the city. During the imperial family's imprisonment in late June, Pyotr Voykov and Alexander Beloborodov , president of the Ural Regional Soviet,  directed the smuggling of letters written in French to the Ipatiev House.
These claimed to be by a monarchist officer seeking to rescue the family, but were composed at the behest of the Cheka. This rebellion was violently suppressed by a detachment of Red Guards led by Peter Ermakov, which opened fire on the protesters, all within earshot of the tsar and tsarina's bedroom window.
The authorities exploited the incident as a monarchist-led rebellion that threatened the security of the captives at the Ipatiev House.
Filipp Goloshchyokin arrived in Moscow on 3 July with a message insisting on the Tsar's execution. The killing of the Tsar's wife and children was also discussed, but it was kept a state secret to avoid any political repercussions; German ambassador Wilhelm von Mirbach made repeated enquiries to the Bolsheviks concerning the family's well-being.
On 14 July, Yurovsky was finalizing the disposal site and how to destroy as much evidence as possible at the same time.
The basement room chosen for this purpose had a barred window which was nailed shut to muffle the sound of shooting and in case of any screaming.
On 16 July, Yurovsky was informed by the Ural Soviets that Red Army contingents were retreating in all directions and the executions could not be delayed any longer.
A coded telegram seeking final approval was sent by Goloshchyokin and Georgy Safarov at around 6 pm to Lenin in Moscow. The intention was to park it close to the basement entrance, with its engine running, to mask the noise of gunshots.
The Nagant operated on old black gunpowder which produced a good deal of smoke and fumes; smokeless powder was only just being phased in.
In the commandant's office, Yurovsky assigned victims to each killer before distributing the handguns.
He took a Mauser and Colt while Ermakov armed himself with three Nagants, one Mauser and a bayonet; he was the only one assigned to kill two prisoners Alexandra and Botkin.
Yurovsky instructed his men to "shoot straight at the heart to avoid an excessive quantity of blood and get it over quickly. Yurovsky sent them to the Popov House for failing "at that important moment in their revolutionary duty".
While the Romanovs were having dinner on 16 July , Yurovsky entered the sitting room and informed them that kitchen boy Leonid Sednev was leaving to meet his uncle, Ivan Sednev, who had returned to the city asking to see him; Ivan had already been shot by the Cheka.
Around midnight on 17 July, Yurovsky ordered the Romanovs' physician, Eugene Botkin , to awaken the sleeping family and ask them to put on their clothes, under the pretext that the family would be moved to a safe location due to impending chaos in Yekaterinburg.
Nicholas asked if Yurovsky could bring two chairs, on which Tsarevich Alexei and Alexandra sat. A few minutes later, an execution squad of secret police was brought in and Yurovsky read aloud the order given to him by the Ural Executive Committee:.
Nikolai Alexandrovich, in view of the fact that your relatives are continuing their attack on Soviet Russia, the Ural Executive Committee has decided to execute you.
Nicholas, facing his family, turned and said "What? The Empress and Grand Duchess Olga, according to a guard's reminiscence, had tried to bless themselves, but failed amid the shooting.
Yurovsky reportedly raised his Colt gun at Nicholas's torso and fired; Nicholas fell dead, pierced with at least three bullets in his upper chest.
The intoxicated Peter Ermakov , the military commissar for Verkh-Isetsk, shot and killed Alexandra with a bullet wound to the head.
He then shot at Maria, who ran for the double doors, hitting her in the thigh. Alexey Kabanov, who ran onto the street to check the noise levels, heard dogs barking from the Romanovs' quarters and the sound of gunshots loud and clear despite the noise from the Fiat's engine.
Kabanov then hurried downstairs and told the men to stop firing and kill the family and their dogs with their gun butts and bayonets.
When they stopped, the doors were then opened to scatter the smoke. The noise of the guns had been heard by households all around, awakening many people.
The executioners were ordered to use their bayonets , a technique which proved ineffective and meant that the children had to be dispatched by still more gunshots, this time aimed more precisely at their heads.
The Tsarevich was the first of the children to be executed. Yurovsky watched in disbelief as Nikulin spent an entire magazine from his Browning gun on Alexei, who was still seated transfixed in his chair; he also had jewels sewn into his undergarment and forage cap.
Olga sustained a gunshot wound to the head. Maria and Anastasia were said to have crouched up against a wall covering their heads in terror until they were shot.
Yurovsky killed Tatiana and Alexei. Tatiana died from a single shot to the back of her head. While Yurovsky was checking the victims for pulses, Ermakov walked through the room, flailing the bodies with his bayonet.
The execution lasted about 20 minutes, Yurovsky later admitting to Nikulin's "poor mastery of his weapon and inevitable nerves".
Yurovsky saw this and demanded that they surrender any looted items or be shot. The attempted looting, coupled with Ermakov's incompetence and drunken state, convinced Yurovsky to oversee the disposal of the bodies himself.
Alexandre Beloborodov sent a coded telegram to Lenin's secretary, Nikolai Gorbunov. It was found by White investigator Nikolai Sokolov and reads: .
Inform Sverdlov the whole family have shared the same fate as the head. Officially the family will die at the evacuation.
Aleksandr Lisitsyn of the Cheka, an essential witness on behalf of Moscow, was designated to promptly dispatch to Sverdlov soon after the executions of Nicholas and Alexandra's politically valuable diaries and letters, which would be published in Russia as soon as possible.
Everything was packed into the Romanovs' own trunks for dispatch to Moscow under escort by commissars. Yurovsky was furious when he discovered that the drunken Ermakov had brought only one shovel for the burial.
These men were all intoxicated and they were outraged that the prisoners were not brought to them alive. They expected to be part of the lynch mob.
The truck was bogged down in an area of marshy ground near the Gorno-Uralsk railway line, during which all the bodies were unloaded onto carts and taken to the disposal site.
Yurovsky and five other men laid out the bodies on the grass and undressed them, the clothes piled up and burned while Yurovsky took inventory of their jewellery.
Only Maria's undergarments contained no jewels, which to Yurovsky was proof that the family had ceased to trust her ever since she became too friendly with one of the guards back in May.
Only then did Yurovsky discover that the pit was less than 3 metres 9 feet deep and the muddy water below did not fully submerge the corpses as he had expected.
He unsuccessfully tried to collapse the mine with hand grenades , after which his men covered it with loose earth and branches. It was decided that the pit was too shallow.
Sergey Chutskaev of the local Soviet told Yurovsky of some deeper copper mines west of Yekaterinburg, the area remote and swampy and a grave there less likely to be discovered.
He ordered additional trucks to be sent out to Koptyaki whilst assigning Pyotr Voykov to obtain barrels of petrol, kerosene and sulphuric acid, and plenty of dry firewood.
Yurovsky also seized several horse-drawn carts to be used in the removal of the bodies to the new site. The sodden corpses were hauled out one by one using ropes tied to their mangled limbs and laid under a tarpaulin.
He returned to the Amerikanskaya Hotel to confer with the Cheka. He seized a truck which he had loaded with blocks of concrete for attaching to the bodies before submerging them in the new mineshaft.
A second truck carried a detachment of Cheka agents to help move the bodies. Yurovsky returned to the forest at 10 pm on 18 July. The bodies were again loaded onto the Fiat truck, which by then had been extricated from the mud.
During transportation to the deeper copper mines on the early morning of 19 July, the Fiat truck carrying the bodies got stuck again in mud near Porosenkov Log "Piglet's Ravine".
With the men exhausted, most refusing to obey orders and dawn approaching, Yurovsky decided to bury them under the road where the truck had stalled.
Sulphuric acid was again used to dissolve the bodies, their faces smashed with rifle butts and covered with quicklime. Railroad ties were placed over the grave to disguise it, with the Fiat truck being driven back and forth over the ties to press them into the earth.
The burial was completed at 6 am on 19 July. Since the female body was badly disfigured, Yurovsky mistook her for Anna Demidova; in his report he wrote that he had actually wanted to destroy Alexandra's corpse.
After Yekaterinburg fell to the anti-communist White Army on 25 July, Admiral Alexander Kolchak established the Sokolov Commission to investigate the murders at the end of that month.
Nikolai Sokolov , a legal investigator for the Omsk Regional Court, was appointed to undertake this.
Sokolov discovered a large number of the Romanovs' belongings and valuables that were overlooked by Yurovsky and his men in and around the mineshaft where the bodies were initially disposed.
Among them were burned bone fragments, congealed fat,  Dr Botkin's upper dentures and glasses, corset stays, insignias and belt buckles, shoes, keys, pearls and diamonds,  a few spent bullets, and part of a severed female finger.
Sokolov ultimately failed to find the concealed burial site on the Koptyaki Road; he photographed the spot as evidence of where the Fiat truck had become stuck on the morning of 19 July.
His preliminary report was published in a book that same year in French and then Russian. It was published in English in Until , it was the only accepted historical account of the murders.
The Soviet government continued to attempt to control accounts of the murders. In , during a period of purges, Joseph Stalin issued a clampdown on all discussion of the Romanov murders.
Yeltsin wrote in his memoirs that "sooner or later we will be ashamed of this piece of barbarism".
The destruction of the house did not stop pilgrims or monarchists from visiting the site. Local amateur sleuth Alexander Avdonin and filmmaker Geli Ryabov located the shallow grave on 30—31 May after years of covert investigation and a study of the primary evidence.
Since there were no clothes on the bodies and the damage inflicted was extensive, controversy persisted as to whether the skeletal remains identified and interred in St.
Petersburg as Anastasia's were really hers or in fact Maria's. On 29 July , another amateur group of local enthusiasts found the small pit containing the remains of Alexei and his sister, located in two small bonfire sites not far from the main grave on the Koptyaki Road.
Nikulin , Mikhail A. Kabanov former soldier in the tsar's Life Guards and Chekist assigned to the attic machine gun ,  Pavel Medvedev, V.
Netrebin, and Y. Filipp Goloshchyokin , a close associate of Yakov Sverdlov, being a military commissar of the Uralispolkom in Yekaterinburg, however did not actually participate, and two or three guards refused to take part.
He was a witness but later claimed to have taken part in the murders, looting belongings from a dead grand duchess.
The men who were directly complicit in the murder of the imperial family largely survived in the immediate months after the murders.
Pavel Medvedev, head of the Ipatiev House guard and one of the key figures in the murders,  was captured by the White Army in Perm in February During his interrogation he denied taking part in the murders, and died in prison of typhus.
Three days after the murders, Yurovsky personally reported to Lenin on the events of that night and was rewarded with an appointment to the Moscow City Cheka.
He held a succession of key economic and party posts, dying in the Kremlin Hospital in aged Prior to his death, he donated the guns he used in the murders to the Museum of the Revolution in Moscow,  and left behind three valuable, though contradictory, accounts of the event.
A British officer [ who? Lenin saw the House of Romanov as "monarchist filth, a year disgrace",  and referred to Nicholas II in conversation and in his writings as "the most evil enemy of the Russian people, a bloody executioner, an Asiatic gendarme" and "a crowned robber.
Uncovered documents in Archive No. The 55 volumes of Lenin's Collected Works as well as the memoirs of those who directly took part in the murders were scrupulously censored, emphasizing the roles of Sverdlov and Goloshchyokin.
Lenin was, however, aware of Vasily Yakovlev's decision to take Nicholas, Alexandra and Maria further on to Omsk instead of Yekaterinburg in April , having become worried about the extremely threatening behavior of the Ural Soviets in Tobolsk and along the Trans-Siberian Railway.
The Biographical Chronicle of Lenin's political life confirms that first Lenin between 6 and 7 pm and then Lenin and Sverdlov together between and pm had direct telegraph contact with the Ural Soviets about Yakovlev's change of route.
Despite Yakovlev's request to take the family further away to the more remote Simsky Gorny District in Ufa province where they could hide in the mountains , warning that "the baggage" would be destroyed if given to the Ural Soviets, Lenin and Sverdlov were adamant that they be brought to Yekaterinburg.
Ex-tsar safe. All rumors are only lies of capitalist press. Lenin also welcomed news of the death of Grand Duchess Elizabeth , who was murdered in Alapayevsk along with five other Romanovs on 18 July , remarking that "virtue with the crown on it is a greater enemy to the world revolution than a hundred tyrant tsars".
On the afternoon of 19 July, Filipp Goloshchyokin announced at the Opera House on Glavny Prospekt that "Nicholas the bloody" had been shot and his family taken to another place.
It reported that the monarch had been executed on the order of Uralispolkom under pressure posed by the approach of the Czechoslovaks.
Over the course of 84 days after the Yekaterinburg murders, 27 more friends and relatives 14 Romanovs and 13 members of the imperial entourage and household  were murdered by the Bolsheviks: at Alapayevsk on 18 July,  Perm on 4 September,  and the Peter and Paul Fortress on 24 January Although official Soviet accounts place the responsibility for the decision with the Uralispolkom, an entry in Leon Trotsky 's diary reportedly suggested that the order had been given by Lenin himself.
Trotsky wrote:. My next visit to Moscow took place after the fall of Yekaterinburg. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree See Article History.
Read More on This Topic. The military drive that finally expelled the Poles from Moscow led to the election of Michael Mikhail Fyodorovich , the year-old son Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription.
Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The military drive that finally expelled the Poles from Moscow led to the election of Michael Mikhail Fyodorovich , the year-old son of Fyodor Romanov, as the new tsar.
The composition of the coalition that elected him is not clear, but he evidently…. The collapse came suddenly on March 8, , planned by no one.
A number of factories in Petrograd were on strike, and many of their workers were on the streets, as were the women in shopping queues and other women celebrating the international….
When the Romanov dynasty emerged in with Tsar Michael, the formula for continued power was similar to that of the Great Elector in Brandenburg: the common interest of ruler and gentry enabled Alexis to dispense with the zemsky sobor.
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